July 27, 2023
Picture of Thomas Oberlechner
Thomas Oberlechner

CEO & Founder

Beyond Prospect Theory:
How BehaviorQuant Revolutionizes Behavioral Finance

Traditional theories of economics have long been centered around the belief that human beings are rational creatures who invariably make optimal decisions. However, with the advent of prospect theory, pioneered by psychologists Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, this assumption was profoundly challenged. Prospect theory unveiled a new understanding of risk perception and how it molds our decision-making process, especially in investments.

In this article, we’re not only going to demystify prospect theory for you, but we’ll also present an exciting advancement in the field, brought by BehaviorQuant. This innovative approach extends beyond the general insights provided by prospect theory, venturing into a more personalized comprehension of risk-taking behaviors. 

What is Prospect Theory?

Prospect theory, in the realm of behavioral economics, provides a compelling explanation for decision-making involving uncertainty and potential gains or losses. Unlike classical economic theories that presume individuals always make decisions that maximize their expected utility, prospect theory factors in psychological aspects influencing our risk perception.

Key Concepts of Prospect Theory:

1. Loss Aversion: Prospect theory proposes that investors feel the pain of losses more acutely than they enjoy equivalent gains. The pain of losing $100 is psychologically stronger than the joy of gaining $100.

2. Value Function: The theory introduces the concept of a value function, which describes how investors subjectively perceive gains and losses. The value function is concave for gains (diminishing sensitivity) and convex for losses (heightened sensitivity). This asymmetry leads to loss aversion: usually investors become risk-avoiding when when facing potential gains and risk-seeking when confronted with potential losses.

3. Reference Point: Prospect theory emphasizes the significance of a reference point in the investment decision-making process. Outcomes are evaluated concerning this subjective baseline. Depending on the reference point, this can dramatically impact risk taking and investment decisions!

Why You Should Know About Prospect Theory?

1. Improved Decision-Making: Being aware of prospect theory can help you recognize and avoid common cognitive biases that lead to irrational decisions. Understanding loss aversion and reference points can aid in making more objective choices, particularly in high-stakes situations like investments.

2. Informed Investment Strategy: Knowing that losses have a more substantial impact than gains can help you create a balanced investment portfolio and avoid impulsive reactions during market swings.

3. Effective Risk Management: Prospect theory sheds light on how individuals perceive and respond to risks. This understanding can assist you in developing better risk management strategies, both in professional investment decisions and everyday life.

How BehaviorQuant Takes Prospect Theory to the Next Level

BehaviorQuant presents a groundbreaking approach to the application of Prospect Theory. It offers an even more nuanced and individualized understanding of risk-taking behaviors. Not only can BehaviorQuant show you precisely your individual risk tolerance. Unlike the general insights of Prospect Theory, BehaviorQuant personalizes these findings, offering a detailed analysis of your unique, individual risk tolerance.

In addition to providing you with an in-depth understanding of your risk behavior, BehaviorQuant goes a step further. It places your risk-taking propensities in context, by comparing your investment approaches with hundreds of other investment professionals and financial clients. In essence, it provides a benchmark, letting you see where you stand in terms of risk-taking relative to others in your field.

Finally, BehaviorQuant takes into account the ever-changing market conditions, identifying whether you’re a balanced risk-taker across different scenarios, or if your behavior swings in response to gains and losses. This dynamic view of risk-taking is crucial: Investors’ reactions to different market conditions can vary greatly, as the two following examples clearly show.

Andrew, 53, Wealth Client: A Profound Risk-Taker
Amid Losses

Market downturns, such as during bearish trends, noticeably intensify Andrew‘s risk-taking appetite. As a wealth client,
he shows a significant shift towards riskier investments when confronted with losses.

Brenda, 32, Fund Manager: A Consistent Risk-Taker 
in both Gains and Losses

Brenda displays a consistent approach to risk-taking, irrespective of the market condition. Whether the market is bullish (gaining) or bearish (losing), Brenda’s risk inclination remains relatively stable.


Prospect theory provides valuable insights into how humans generally make decisions under uncertainty. However, BehaviorQuant elevates these insights even further, providing a highly detailed, personalized analysis of individual investors’ risk behavior under both gain and loss conditions.

This in-depth understanding of personal risk tendencies allows investment professionals and financial clients to navigate the complexities of changing markets with greater success. It leads to more informed investment choices, acknowledging the fact that no two investors are the same. This deep behavioral insight into decision-makers drives superior outcomes, benefiting both professionals and clients alike.